CORE blimey – genre language

A #corpusmooc participant in answering a discussion question on what they would like to use corpora for replied that they wanted a reference book that shows various common structures in various genres such as “letters of condolence, public service announcements, obituaries”.

The CORE (Corpus of Online Registers) corpus at BYU along with the virtual corpora feature allows a way to reach for this.

For example, the screenshot below shows the keywords of verbs & adjectives in the Reviews genre:

Before I briefly show how to make a virtual corpus do note that the standard interface allows you do to a lot of things with the various registers. The CORE interface shows you examples of this. For example the following shows the distribution of the present perfect across the genres:

Create virtual corpora

To create a virtual corpus first go to the CORE start page:

Then click on Texts/Virtual and get this screen:

Next press Create corpus to get this screen:

We want the Reviews Genre so choose it from the drop down box:

Then press Submit to get the following screen:

Here you can either accept these texts or say you want to build only a film review corpus manually look through links and filter for film reviews only. Give your corpus a name or add it to an already existing corpus. Here we give it the name “review”:

Then after submitting you will be taken to the following screen which shows you all your virtual corpora collection we can see the corpus we just created at number 5:

Now you can list keywords.

Do note that the virtual corpora feature is available in most of the BYU collection so if genre is not your thing maybe the other choices of corpora might be useful.

Thanks for reading and do let me know if anything appears unclear.



Using BYU-Wikipedia corpus to answer genre related questions

A link was posted recently on Twitter to an IELTS site looking at writing processes and describing graphs.
The following caught my eye:

…natural processes are often described using the active voice, whereas man-made or manufacturing processes are usually described using the passive.

The claim seems to go back to 2011 online (

This is an interesting claim. It has been shown that passives are more common in abstract, technical and formal writing (Biber, 1988 as cited by McEnery & Xiao, 2005). Here the claim is about specific written texts on natural processes and man-made processes.

Well we can simplify this by asking are there more passives used when writing about man-made processes than when writing about natural processes? Since if you use passive clauses then you don’t use active clauses and we can come to a conclusion by deduction.

BYU-Wikipedia corpus can be used to get approximations of natural process writing and man-made process writing. The keywords I used (for the title word) were ecology and manufacturing. Filtering out unwanted texts took longer than expected especially for the manufacturing corpus. In the end I had an ecology corpus of 77 articles and  153,621 words and a manufacturing corpus of 116 articles and 98,195 words.

The search term I used to look for passives was are|were [v?n*]. This gave me a total of 293 passives for ecology and 304 passives for manufacturing. According to the Lancaster LL calculator this showed a significant overuse of passives in manufacturing compared to ecology. According to the log ratio score this is about 2 times as common (if I understand this statistic correctly). Now this does not mean much as a lot of the texts in the wikipedia corpora won’t be specifically about processes but still it is interesting.

What is more interesting are the types of verbs used in passives in ecology and manufacturing. The top ten in each case:

























Thanks for reading.


Biber, D. (1988) Variation Across Speech and Writing(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

McEnery, A. M. and Xiao, R. Z. (2005) Passive constructions in English and Chinese: A corpus-based contrastive study . Proceedings from the Corpus Linguistics Conference Series, 1 (1). ISSN 1747-9398 Retrieved from

Using BYU Wiki corpus to recycle coursebook vocabulary in a variety of contexts

Recycling vocabulary in a variety of contexts is recommended by the vocabulary literature. Simply going back to texts one has used in a coursebook is an option but it misses the variety of context.

I need to recycle vocabulary from Unit 1 of my TOEIC book, so I take the topics from the table of contents as input to create a wiki corpus.

The main title of Unit 1 in my book is careers, with sub topics of professions, recruitment, training. I could also add in job interview, job fair, temp agency.

Note for more details on various features of the BYU WIKI corpus do see the videos by Mark Davies, for the rest of this post I assume you have some familiarity with these.

So when creating a corpus in BYU WIKI corpus in my Title word(s) search I enter career* to find all titles with career and careers.

Then in the Words in pages box I enter professions, profession, recruitment, training. Note search for plural and 300 as number of pages:

Screenshot 1: corpus search terms

After pressing submit a screen of a list of wiki pages is presented, you can scroll through this to find pages that may be irrelevant to you:

Screenshot 2: wiki pages

After unticking any irrelevant pages press submit. I won’t talk a lot about filtering your corpus build here. As mentioned do make sure to watch Mark Davies series of videos to get more details.

Now you will see your newly created corpus:

Screenshot 3: my virtual corpora

Tick the Specific radio button:

Screenshot 4: specific key word radio button

and then click the nouns keywords. Skill is the top keyword here which also appears in the wordlist in my book:

Screenshot 5: noun keywords

What I am more interested in is verbs so I click that:

Screenshot 6: verb keywords

The noun requirement, which by the way does not come from the careers unit, appears in the book wordlist but not the verb. So now I can look at some example uses of the verb require that I could use in class.

One step is to see what collocates with require:

Screenshot 7: collocates of require

Clicking on the top 5 collocates brings up some potential language.

Another interesting use is once you have a number of corpora you can see what word appear most in each corpora. The following screenshots show corpora related to the first 3 units of my book i.e. Careers, Workplaces, Communications:

Screenshot 8: my virtual corpora

The greyed lines mean those corpora are omitted from my search. This could be a nice exercise where you take some word and get students to see how they are distributed. So for example you may show the distribution of the verb fill:

Screenshot 9: distribution of verb fill

We see that it appears most in the recruit* corpus. One option now is to get students to predict how the verb is used in that corpus and then click the bar to see some examples.

After this demonstration you can now ask students to guess what words will appear most in the various corpora and do the search for the students to see the resulting graphs.

Hope this has shown how we can use BYU WIKI corpus to recycle vocabulary in different contexts.

Do shoot me any questions as this post may indeed be confusing.